A group of patients with their biopsies were studied. Over-expression of toll-like receptor signaling, antigen presentation/dendritic cell maturation, interferon production and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated and acute rejection-associated genes were noted more in the ones with increased fibrosis. Therefore, the combination of fibrosis and inflammation in 1-year protocol biopsies associates with reduced graft function and survival as well as a rejection-like gene expression signature, even among recipients with no clinical risk factors for poor outcomes.
The abstract can be found at Nephrology Now as well
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