Wednesday, December 22, 2021

KDIGO 2021- ANCA vasculitis management

 Check out the latest update in 2021 of treatment of ANCA vasculitis at KDIGO

1. Kidney biopsy is highly recommended in most cases

2. For induction- they recommend that steroids in combination with cyclophosphamide or rituximab be used for new onset AAV. 

3. For patients with GFR that is declining of crt >4.0mg/dl, there is limited data for rituximab based treatment. The combination of cyclo+ ritux can be used in that setting - RITUXIVAS protocol.
    4. When to do cytoxan vs rituxan?

5. Reduced dose steroids have shown similar results as high dose steroids( PEXIVAS trial)

6. Dosing for Rituxan and cyclophosphamide

7. Consider plasma exchange with crt >5.7 requiring dialysis or with rapid rise in crt and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with hypoxemia or overlap syndrome with Anti GBM

8. Maintenance therapy

Sunday, December 19, 2021

In the News: WhatsApp in Onconephrology

A recent study published looked at using a "mastermind" chat using WhatsApp for onconephrology discussion. This group was created using Whatsapp in 2019. Since then close to 100 members are part of an ongoing online discussion. This study evaluated the 2 years of chat content via a survey, keywords and a full qualitative thematic analysis.

1. The keywords showed the figure below- The bigger the font, the most commonly discussed topic. 

2. In terms of thematic analysis, the 3 common themes that emerged were: collaboration, case discussions and knowledge sharing.

3. In terms of the survey, the key figure is below.  It is interesting that after, the chat was used by many for knowledge discussion and topic question answering. This is fascinating and could be because many of the topic experts and chapter writers were on this chat. 

Use of mastermind chats like this should grow in medicine. This allows for small subspecialty fields to have like minded individuals e-meet and discuss tough clinical challenges, share important knowledge and eventually collaboration for research. A recent paper on CDK4/6 inhibitors causing ATN was a result of collaboration led by this chat. 

Check out this amazing tweetorial by Prakash G on this.

Saturday, December 18, 2021

American Society of Onconephrology

We have come a long way in the last 13 years. The origins  of this field can be traced back to 2005 when the first book on this topic was released by Eric Cohen et al. The field of oncology has continued to rapidly evolve since then, and the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy, and immunotherapy has further necessitated the development of this new subspecialty. Onconephrology has since become its own rapidly-growing subspecialty. As many of you know my passion for this field has been evident on my blog for the last decade. With the help of the amazing founding members team, this organization was created this fall of 2021.

The website is at and twitter( @onconephsociety)
The mission is to promote research, clinical activities, and education related to onconephrology. 

More specifically, the primary objectives of this society shall be to further the investigation of onco-nephrology and reach a better understanding of the basic mechanisms involved as follows:
By informal group discussion of material that is of cross disciplinary interest as it pertains to care of patients with kidney disease and cancer.
By exchange of ideas pertaining to clinical experiences and experimental research
By consideration of problems encountered in onco-nephrology research. 
By the promotion of good fellowship and mutual trust among members of this organization.
By fostering education and identifying gaps in knowledge as it pertains to onconephrology.

Membership will be soon available. Let's welcome the beginning of the next phase of this field in nephrology.

Friday, December 10, 2021

Topic Discussion: CDK4/6 inhibitors and the Kidney

Selective estrogen receptor inhibitors and aromatase inhibitors are the mainstay of therapy for hormonal receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer; however, most metastatic HR+, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) progress and acquire resistance to endocrine therapies. Cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6 inhibitors) comprise a new class of drugs that overcome this resistance.  Three CDK4/6 inhibitors—palbociclib, ribociclib, and abemaciclib—have been approved for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancers, usually in combination with hormone therapy. 

Interestingly, the renal community has seen elevated serum creatinine associated with these agents. Several early trials of palbociclib and ribociclib did not describe the incidence of AKI, whereas clinical trials of abemaciclib have reported that up to 25% of patients experienced a rise in creatinine. In vitro studies of abemaciclib have shown that the drug and its major metabolites inhibit renal transporters like organic cation transporter-2, multidrug and toxin extrusion-1 (MATE-1), and MATE2-K, potentially leading to a reversible rise in creatinine without actually changing GFR. Cases have been described that show this pseudo-AKI. 

More recently, biopsy proven cases of acute tubular injury also have been noted- 6 cases with tubular and interstitial damage.

Finally, a search of the FAERs database revealed that, in addition to AKI, metabolic disturbances like hypokalemia, hyponatremia, and hypocalcemia may occur while on CDK4/6 inhibitors. Hyponatremia has been reported with ribociclib and with abemaciclib and grade 2 hypokalemia was reported in 20.8% of patients taking abemaciclib. 

In summary, the common renal associations with CDK4/6 inhibitors are

Pseudo AKI, ATI, hyponatremia, hypokalemia and hypocalcemia

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