Since the 1970s, the transplant literature has been soaring with anti rejection medications. In the last decade, we as nephrologists are starting to learn from Rheumatology and Oncology on novel targets to treat GNs and Rejections in grafts. A recent review in CJASN highlights the different categories of agents in immunosuppression that we have to our disposal.
T cell directed therapy that target signal 1 from TCR and antigen presenting cell such as OKT3 and and CNIs
T cell directed therapy that target signal 2 that is costimulatory such as Abatecept and belatacept. In addition, there are newer agents being developed for co situmatory blockade by CD154;CD40 targeting.
B cell directed therapy such as Anti CD20 agents such as rituximab, ocrelizumab and veltuzumab
B cell directed therapy such as Anti CD22 agents such as epratuzumab being tried in SLE
B cell targeting agents for B cell differentiation such as belimumab and atacicept.
Plasma cell targeting agents such as bortezomib( carfilzomib hasn't entered the renal world yet)
Complement inhibitors such as eculizumab
Cytokine targeting agents such as steroids
Specific cytokine agents such as anti IL-2 antagonist( basiliximab) and anti TNF alpha
IL-1 antagonists such as anikinra and canakinumab
IL-6 inhibition by tocilizumab being studied in transplant patients
IL-17 inhibition by secukinumab not currently being utilized in renal patients
mTOR inhibitor such as sirolimus and everolimus
Anti CD52 such as campath and alemtuzumab
Inhibition of DNA synthesis by azathioprine, mycophenolate, and leflunomide
Cytotoxic agents such as cyclophosphamide used for many GNs
Finally, pooled polyclonal abs such as IVIG have been used and polyclonal antithymocyte globulins for induction.
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