A recent study published in Kidney International looked at a single health system 4 hospital admissions of AKI with COVID19 and MISC in children in NY. It was during the first wave in 2020.
Over 150 patients met inclusion criteria; 97 (63.8%) with acute-COVID-19 and 55 (36.2%) with MIS-C, AKI occurred in 11.8% of the cohort; 8 with acute-COVID-19 and 10 with MIS-C. All but one patient with AKI were admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). There was no significant difference in age, or ethnicity in those with and without AKI. Those who identified as black had 2.86 times higher odds of AKI (p=0.042; 95%CI 1.04-7.93).
Majority of AKI occurred early in
the course of hospitalization, 72% (N=13) within 24 hours of admission. MIS-C patients with AKI had greater
rates of systolic dysfunction, compared to those without AKI (80% vs 49%, p=
Strengths of this study: One of the largest, detailed cohorts of pediatric patients at the epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak and represents a diverse racial, ethnic and socioeconomic population.
AKI, in unadjusted models, was associated with a lower serum albumin level (OR 0.17)and higher white blood cell counts (OR 1.11). In addition, patients with AKI had 8.4 day greater length of stay. Major Limitations: 1. Small sample size precluded adjustment for confounders 2. As this was an observational study, we are unable to determine causal associations. 3. Single health system/region of the country
Similar to reports in other PICU patients, pediatric COVID-19-related AKI was associated with longer lengths of stay published in Kidney360 also from NY area. In that study, 57 children who met inclusion criteria, 46% (26/57) were found to have AKI. All patients had resolution of AKI at discharge, with 61% achieving recovery by day 2. One patient required dialysis. When compared to those without renal injury, the AKI cohort was older (p < 0.001) and with higher median peak values of CRP (p <0.001), IL-6 (p <0.05), ferritin (p < 0.001), and procalcitonin (p <0.05). More patients with AKI had left ventricular systolic dysfunction (p < 0.001) and lymphopenia (p <0.01), when compared to those without AKI. No differences in Body Mass Index or sex were found.
These findings may reflect the inflammatory cascade’s complex role in development and perpetuation of COVID-19 related AKI. In addition, decreased intravascular volume and distributive/cardiogenic shock may have contributed to AKI in the MIS-C cohort.
Check out the tweetorial by Abby Baselely